In 2017, in France, out of 3.1 million self-employed people, one in five is economically dependent on a relationship with a customer, an upstream organisation or an intermediary. These dependency relationships impose constraints: they limit autonomy with regard to the content of tasks, schedules and pricing.
Dependency on a client is the first form of dependency: it concerns 10% of the self-employed. More numerous in information-communication, transport and business services, they are both constrained in their schedules and in need of work.
The dependents of an upstream relationship, 7% of the self-employed, are half farmers and a fifth in trade. They are more often employers, in companies, with partners or part of networks. They are less qualified. They work more than the others. For a quarter of them, the lack of influence on their prices is the main difficulty.
Dependents of an intermediary (including a digital platform) represent 4% of the self-employed. They are more present in the transport, real estate and information-communication sectors. On average, they work less than others and are much more likely to want to work more. One in five declare themselves registered with Pôle emploi, which reflects both the desire to change jobs and a recent exit from unemployment for some of them.